Occurrence records used in the Publication, "Characterizing bumble bee (Bombus) communities in the United States and assessing a conservation monitoring method"
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 3,251 records.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Strange J, Tripodi A (2018): Characterizing bumble bee (Bombus) communities in the United States and assessing a conservation monitoring method. v1.2. USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory. Dataset/Occurrence. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4783
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is USDA-ARS Pollinating Insect-Biology, Management, Systematics Research. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC 4.0) License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 2d2f6ae8-e640-4c56-b45f-5f69583b81ad. USDA-ARS Pollinating Insect-Biology, Management, Systematics Research publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by U.S. Geological Survey.
Occurrence; bumble bees; community structure; conservation monitoring; national survey; pollinator diversity; sampling method; species richness; Specimen; Occurrence
Systematic surveys of bumble bees from 31 sites in 15 states within the contiguous United States.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [23.886, -170.859], North East [71.525, -64.775]|
The most common of the 30 species encountered was B. impatiens, the common eastern bumble bee, which comprised 36.04% (n = 1172) of the bees encountered nationwide. Several species were represented by only one (B. vandykei) or two (B. flavidus, B. insularis, and B. melanopygus) individuals in the surveys.
|Genus||Bombus (Bumbule bee)|
|Start Date / End Date||2015-06-26 / 2015-08-10|
Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) are economically and ecologically important pollinators in agroecosystems and wildland habitats. In the Nearctic region, there are approximately 41 species, of which the IUCN lists twelve species as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered. We conducted a standardized faunal survey to inform ongoing conservation efforts including petitions under review for the Endangered Species Act. Furthermore, we test the appropriateness of a methodology for accurately sampling bumble bee communities.
|Title||Records from Characterizing bumble bee (Bombus) communities in the United States and assessing a conservation monitoring method|
|Study Area Description||The distribution of bumble bee species across the landscape of North America is complex, and various geographic and biological constraints tend to define species distributions (J. B. Koch, Looney, Sheppard, & Strange, 2017; Lozier, Strange, Stewart, & Cameron, 2011; P. H. Williams et al., 2014). In the contiguous 48 states there exists a strong regional signature in the composition of bumble bee communities. For example, a distinct assemblage of bumble bee species occurs along the Pacific Coast (J. B. Koch et al., 2017), and while some of the species also occur east of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountain ranges, six species are mainly restricted to the Pacific coast region (J. Koch, Strange, & Williams, 2012; P. H. Williams et al., 2014). Another group of bumble bees is less geographically restricted, but is more constrained to habitat, occurring only in high mountain, alpine areas in the southwest and reappearing in lower elevations in northern states (Jackson et al., 2018; Lozier, Strange, & Koch, 2013), Canada (Hatten, Strange, & Maxwell, 2015) and Alaska (J. B. Koch & Strange, 2012; P. Williams, 2013).|
|Design Description||At each site, a collection of approximately 100 foraging bees was taken in a single day between 10:00 and 18:00 local time. We only collected in good weather conditions defined as: temperature 15-35°C, no precipitation, <50% cloud cover, and wind speed <15km/hr. We conducted surveys using two or three collectors using aerial insect nests to capture bumble bees as they foraged on flowering plants for pollen or nectar. Collectors captured foraging bees until a total of 100 worker or male bees were taken at a site, where possible. In most cases, sites were defined as an agricultural field and the field margin directly surrounding the field. However, non-agricultural sites were defined as a patch of flowers not to exceed 5 hectares. Collectors conducted a random walk through the patch or field margins, collecting a bee, stopping to process the bee, then continuing to the next bee they encountered. Netted bees were placed in individual vials and chilled and then given a preliminary field species determination before being killed by freezing on dry ice, except for five sites where time constrains prohibited field identification. Frozen bees were transported back to the USDA-ARS- Pollinating Insect- Biology, Management and Systematics Research Unit in Logan, UT where field species identifications were verified or corrected using available taxonomic keys (J. Koch et al., 2012; Mitchell, 1962; P. H. Williams et al., 2014). Specific determinations, sex determination and site metadata were recorded in a database for further analyses.|
The personnel involved in the project:
At each site, a collection of approximately 100 foraging bees was taken in a single day between 10:00 and 18:00 local time. We only collected in good weather conditions defined as: temperature 15-35°C, no precipitation, <50% cloud cover, and wind speed <15km/hr. We conducted surveys using two or three collectors using aerial insect nests to capture bumble bees as they foraged on flowering plants for pollen or nectar. Collectors captured foraging bees until a total of 100 worker or male bees were taken at a site, where possible. In most cases, sites were defined as an agricultural field and the field margin directly surrounding the field. However, non-agricultural sites were defined as a patch of flowers not to exceed 5 hectares. Collectors conducted a random walk through the patch or field margins, collecting a bee, stopping to process the bee, then continuing to the next bee they encountered. Netted bees were placed in individual vials and chilled and then given a preliminary field species determination before being killed by freezing on dry ice, except for five sites where time constrains prohibited field identification. Frozen bees were transported back to the USDA-ARS- Pollinating Insect- Biology, Management and Systematics Research Unit in Logan, UT where field species identifications were verified or corrected using available taxonomic keys (J. Koch et al., 2012; Mitchell, 1962; P. H. Williams et al., 2014).
|Study Extent||In 2015 (26-Jun to 10-Aug), we conducted systematic surveys of bumble bees from 31 sites in 15 states (Fig 1). Survey efforts were focused on areas where bumble bees are important for agricultural production and over half of our collections occurred in agricultural landscapes with the majority of other collections being in suburban landscapes adjacent to agricultural areas.|
Method step description:
|Collection Name||USDA/ARS, Pollinating Insects, Biology, Management and Systematics Research|
|Parent Collection Identifier||Not applicable|
|Specimen preservation methods||Pinned, Deep frozen|
- Aizen M. A., Smith‐Ramírez C., Morales C. L., Vieli L., Sáez A., Barahona-Segovia R. M., Montalva J., Garibaldi L. A., Inouye D. W. Harder L. D. (2018). Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: The case of alien bumblebees in South America. Journal of Applied Ecology. 00:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13121
- Arbetman, M. P., Meeus, I., Morales, C. L., Aizen, M. A., & Smagghe, G. (2013). Alien parasite hitchhikes to Patagonia on invasive bumblebee. Biological Invasions, 15(3) 489-494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-012-0311-0 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-012-0311-0
- Bushmann, S. L., & Drummond, F. A. (2015). Abundance and diversity of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) found in lowbush blueberry growing regions of downeast Maine. Environmental Entomology, 44(4), 975–989. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv082
- Cameron, S. a, Lozier, J. D., Strange, J. P., Koch, J. B., Cordes, N., Solter, L. F., & Griswold, T. L. (2011). Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(2), 662–667. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014743108
- Chao, A. (1984). Nonparametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics. 11(4), 265-270. https://doi.org/10.2307/4615964
- Chao, A., Chazdon, R. L., Colwell, R. K., & Shen, T. (2006). Abundance-based similarity indices and their estimation when there are unseen species in samples, Biometrics. 62(2), 361–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00489.x
- Colla, S. R., & Packer, L. (2008). Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special focus on Bombus affinis Cresson. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17(6), 1379–1391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9340-5
- Federal Register (2016) Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 90 day findings on 29 petitions. Federal Register 81:14058-14072.
- Federal Register (2017) Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered species status for Rusty Patched Bumble Bee. Federal Register 82:3186-3188.
- Figueroa, L. L., & Bergey, E. A. (2015). Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Oklahoma: past and present biodiversity. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 88(4), 418–429. https://doi.org/10.2317/0022-8567-88.4.418
- Goka, K., Okabe, K., Yoneda, M., & Niwa, S. (2001). Bumblebee commercialization will cause worldwide migration of parasitic mites. Molecular Ecology. 10(8), 2095-2099. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01323.x
- Gotelli, N. J., & Colwell, R. K. (2001). Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters, 4(4), 379–391. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x
- Goulson, D. (2010). Bumblebees: their behaviour, ecology, and conservation. (Second Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2003.08.002
- Goulson, D., Hanley, M. E., Darvill, B., Ellis, J. S., & Knight, M. E. (2005). Causes of rarity in bumblebees. Biological Conservation, 122(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.017
- Goulson, D., Nicholls, E., Botias, C., & Rotheray, E. L. (2015). Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers. Science, 347(6229), 1255957. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255957 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255957
- Graystock, P., Yates, K., Evison, S. E. F., Darvill, B., Goulson, D., & Hughes, W. O. H. (2013). The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(5), 1207-1215. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12134
- Grixti, J. C., Wong, L. T., Cameron, S. A., & Favret, C. (2009). Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest. Biological Conservation, 142(1), 75–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.027
- Hatten, T. D., Strange, J. P., & Maxwell, J. M. (2015). Late-season survey of bumble bees along Canadian highways of British Columbia and Yukon Territories. Western North American Naturalist, 75(2), 170–180. https://doi.org/10.3398/064.075.0205
IUCN. (2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3.
. Downloaded on 23 March 2018.
- Jackson, J. M., Pimsler, M. L., Oyen, K. J., Koch-Uhuad, J. B., Herndon, J. D., Strange, J. P., Dillon, M.D., Lozier, J. D. (2018). Distance, elevation, and environment as drivers of diversity and divergence in bumble bees across latitude and altitude. Molecular Ecology. 27(14), 2926-2942. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14735
- Jacobson, M. M., Tucker, E. M., Mathiasson, M. E., & Rehan, S. M. (2018). Decline of bumble bees in northeastern North America, with special focus on Bombus terricola. Biological Conservation, 217, 437–445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.11.026
- Kerr, J. T., Pindar, A., Galpern, P., Packer, L., Potts, S. G., Roberts, S. M., … Pantoja, A. (2015). Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents. Science, 349(6244), 177–180. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa7031
- Koch, J. B., Looney, C., Sheppard, W. S., & Strange, J. P. (2017). Patterns of population genetic structure and diversity across bumble bee communities in the Pacific Northwest. Conservation Genetics, 18(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-017-0944-8
- Koch, J. B., & Strange, J. P. (2012). The status of Bombus occidentalis and B . moderatus in Alaska with special focus on Nosema bombi incidence, 86(3), 212–220.
- Koch, J., Strange, J., & Williams, P. (2012). Bumble Bees of the Western United States. USDA Forest Service Research Notes, 143. https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-0493-99.2.443
- Lebuhn, G.; Droege, S.; Connor, E.F.; Gemmill-Herren, B.; Potts, S.G.; Minckley, R.L.; Griswold, T.; Jean, R.; Kula, E.; Roubik, D.W.; Cane, J.; Wright, K.W.; Frankie, G.; Parker, F. Detecting insect pollinator declines on regional and global scales. Conservation Biology. 2012(27) 113–120.
- Lebuhn, G.; Droege, S.; Connor, E.F.; Gemmill-Herren, B.; Potts, S.G.; Minckley, R.L.; Jean, R.P.; Kula, E.; Roubik, D.W.; Wright, K.W.; Frankie, G.; Parker, F. Evidence based conservation: reply to Tepedino et al. Conserv. Biol. 2015(29) 283–285
- Lozier, J. D., Strange, J. P., & Koch, J. B. (2013). Landscape heterogeneity predicts gene flow in a widespread polymorphic bumble bee, Bombus bifarius (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Conservation Genetics. 14(5), 1099-1110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-013-0498-3
- Lozier, J. D., Strange, J. P., Stewart, I. J., & Cameron, S. A. (2011). Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species. Molecular Ecology, 20(23), 4870–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05314.x
- Miller-Struttmann, N. E., Geib, J. C., Franklin, J. D., Kevan, P. G., Holdo, R. M., Ebert-May, D., … Galen, C. (2015). Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change. Science, 349(6255), 1541–1544. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab0868
- Mitchell, T. B. (1962). Bees of the eastern United States. II. Chemistry & Biology (Vol. 152). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1074-5521(98)90002-3
- Morales, C. L., Arbetman, M. P., Cameron, S. A., & Aizen, M. A. (2013). Rapid ecological replacement of a native bumble bee by invasive species. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(10), 529–534. https://doi.org/10.1890/120321
- Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F. G., Friendly, M., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Mcglinn, D., … Oksanen, M. J. (2018). Community Ecology Package. Retrieved from https://github.com/vegandevs/vegan/issues
- Ratti, C. M., & Colla, S. R. (2010). Discussion of the presence of an eastern bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens Cresson) in western Canada. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 86(2), 29–31. https://doi.org/10.3956/2009-19.1
- Tepedino, V.J.; Durham, S.; Cameron, S.A.; Goodell, K. Documenting bee decline or squandering scarce resources. Conserv. Biol. 2015(29) 280–282.
- Tripodi, A. D., & Szalanski, A. L. (2015). The bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) of Arkansas, fifty years later. Journal of Melittology, (50), 1. https://doi.org/10.17161/jom.v0i50.4834
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2013) Level III ecoregions of the continental United States: Corvallis, Oregon, U.S. EPA – National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, map scale 1:7,500,000, https://www.epa.gov/eco-research/level-iii-and-iv-ecoregions-continental-united-states. Accessed 23 March 2018.
- Velthuis, H. H. W., & van Doorn, A. (2006). A century of advances in bumblebee domestication and the economic and environmental aspects of its commercialization for pollination. Apidologie, 37(4), 421–451. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:200601
- Williams, P. (2013). Bumble Bees of the World. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011062r
- Zayed, A. (2009). Bee genetics and conservation. Apidologie, 40(3), 237–262. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009026
- Zayed, A., & Packer, L. (2005). Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(30), 10742–10746. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0502271102