Mohonk Preserve Forest Health Monitoring Data

Occurrence
Latest version published by Mohonk Preserve on Dec 31, 2022 Mohonk Preserve

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Description

In 2018, the Mohonk Preserve’s Daniel Smiley Research Center implemented a long-term research project aimed at inventorying forest vegetation and monitoring forest health. The protocol was adapted from the National Park Service’s Northeast Temperate Network (https://www.nps.gov/im/netn/forest-health.htm). This project monitors the composition and structure of the Mohonk Preserve forests, and collects data for assessing forest soil condition, impacts of white-tailed deer herbivory, and land cover. In 2018, 24 plots were established in four habitat types: Eastern hemlock forest (n = 6), white ash forest (n = 6), historic prescribed burn forest (n = 6), and randomly selected forest (n = 6). In 2021, an additional 14 plots were established in two historic Breeding Bird Survey research areas: Eastern hemlock forest (n = 8) and pitch pine forest (n = 6). All data collection occurred between the months of June through August. Plots are scheduled to be resampled every four years.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 4,680 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Garretson A, , Napoli M, Feldsine N, Long E C, Ferreri C T, Erle J C, Quintana Vargas M, Green R, Chinkan C (2022): Mohonk Preserve Forest Health Monitoring Data. v1.1. Mohonk Preserve. Dataset/Occurrence. https://bison.usgs.gov/ipt/resource?r=mohonk-forest-health&v=1.1

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Mohonk Preserve. To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Public Domain (CC0 1.0). Users may copy, modify, distribute and use the work, including for commercial purposes, without restriction.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 062f3445-944a-4fd4-915a-ed1a1109cf04.  Mohonk Preserve publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by U.S. Geological Survey.

Keywords

Occurrence

Contacts

Alexis Garretson
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Research Associate
Mohonk Preserve
Mohonk Preserve Director of Conservation Science
  • Originator
Director of Conservation Science
Mohonk Preserve
Megan Napoli
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Research Ecologist
Mohonk Preserve
Natalie Feldsine
  • Originator
Research Collection and Citizen Science Coordinator
Mohonk Preserve
Elizabeth C Long
  • Originator
Former Director of Conservation Science
Mohonk Preserve
Catherine T Ferreri
  • Originator
Field Technician
Mohonk Preserve
Jacob C Erle
  • Originator
Field Technician
Mohonk Preserve
Miriam Quintana Vargas
  • Originator
Field Technician
Mohonk Preserve
Ralph Green
  • Originator
Field Technician
Mohonk Preserve
Chris Chinkan
  • Originator
Field Technician
Mohonk Preserve
Director of Conservation Science Mohonk Preserve
  • Point Of Contact
Director of Conservation Science
Mohonk Preserve
Mohonk Preserve
  • User
Mohonk Preserve
Mohonk Preserve
PO Box 715
New Paltz
New York
US

Geographic Coverage

Data were collected from 24 forest plots on Mohonk Preserve property in the Shawangunk Ridge of New Paltz, NY, USA

Bounding Coordinates South West [41.721, -74.221], North East [41.831, -74.089]

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2018-05-29 / 2021-08-26

Sampling Methods

Site Selection & Plot Establishment Prerequisites for plot sites included: 1) plot center is ≥ 15 m from the Preserve boundary, a public road, a carriage road, a perennial stream, a water body, a mowed area, or any obstacle that would interfere with plot establishment; 2) plot is not be located on top of earthworks in cultural area; 3) plot is located in an area of < 30 degree/ 60% slope; and 4) plot is located in an area that is not a safety hazard (e.g. area free of unstable dead trees, pits, slick or unstable surfaces, etc.). Once the plot center was established in a suitable area, the plot boundaries were carefully measured creating a 15 x 15 meters (m) plot (see schematic). Each corner (upper right, UR; upper left, UL; back right, BR; and back left, BL) and mid-point were labeled (upper center, UC; middle right, MR; middle left, ML; and back center, BC). Plot Details Within the 15 x 15 m plot, GPS coordinates, observers, and time range of sampling was recorded. Aspect was recorded in degrees. Downhill and uphill slope of plot was recorded in degrees at plot points UC and BC. The physiographic class (measures of Xeric, Mesic, or Hydric) and the stand structure (Even-aged, Multi-aged, Mosaic, Early successional, or Woodland) were categorized and stunted woodland assessment was recorded (yes or no). Canopy live crown closure of the plot was estimated (<10%, 10-25%, 25-50%, 50-75%, >75%). Percent cover classes (0, 1-5, 5-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100%) for live vegetation was estimated for cover low (< 0.5 m), cover mid (0.5 – 2 m), and cover high (2 -5 m). Using the same percent cover ranges, cover was also estimated for trampled vegetation, bare soil, exposed bedrock or large rocks (>10cm), bryophyte (non-vascular plant foliage within the plot in the ground layer only; <0.5m), and lichen. Water on the plot was recorded (none, permanent stream/pond, swamp/bog/marsh, ditch/canal, temporary stream, flood zone, vernal pool, or other). Average stand height (m) of plot trees was determined by averaging the height of 3 trees (mix of dominant and co-dominant) using a clinometer. Microtopography presence or absence was recorded. Presence or absence of deer browseline was recorded and assessment of browse impact in the plot was completed using an index of 1 – 5 (1 = very low, 2 = low, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high). Potential plot disturbances to flora within the plot and severity of disturbance were assessed. Tree Sampling Within the 15 x 15 m plot, each tree species >10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH; measured at height of 1.37 m) was tagged numerically with aluminum tree tags. The plot was broken into 4 quarters labeled A-D (A: Northeast; B: Southeast; C: Southwest; D: Northwest). The following parameters were measured for each tree: species identification; DBH (cm); status of life (Alive or Dead) and growth of the tree (Standing, Leaning, Fallen, Broken); tree crown position in the canopy (Dominant, Co-dominant, Intermediate, Sub-canopy, Gap-exploiter, and Open-grown); tree condition (Insect damage, Large dead branches, Small or Large cavities, Burl/galls, Vines in canopy, or if no condition = Healthy); foliage condition (Holes, Necrosis, Chlorosis, Wilting, Leaf loss) and condition severity estimation for both the total foliage and the surface area of the affected foliage (1-10, 10-50, 50-90, 90-100%). For trees that were dead the state of decay was categorized (1 = very little decay, 2 = little decay, 3 = moderate decay, 4= advanced decay, 5= very advanced decay). It was recorded if the tree was forked (yes or no) as well as if the tree was unusual where the DBH was measured (yes or no). For applicable species (Eastern hemlock, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid; American beech, Beech Bark Disease; and White ash, Emerald Ash Borer) an index was estimated for severity of infection (1 = no sign of infection, 2 = some impact, 3 = moderate impact, 4 = severe impact). Regeneration Plot Sampling Three 2 m radius regeneration plots were established four meters from the plot center in the direction of upper right (UR), upper left (UL), and back center (BC), (see schematic). Within each regeneration plot all seedling, sapling, and shrub species were identified. Seedings are defined as live juvenile trees that are ≥15 cm tall and <1 cm DBH. Saplings are defined as juvenile trees ≥ 1 cm and < 10 cm DBH. Shrubs are defined as woody, sub-canopy species (woody vines included) and ≥ 30 cm tall. The number of living stems for each individual species were recorded within these categories. For each seedling species height (cm) was measured in ranges (15-30, 30-100, 100-150, and >150). For each shrub species percent cover (%) was estimated (<1, 1-5, 5-10, 10-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100). For each sapling, the DBH was measured (cm). Coarse Woody Debris Sampling From the plot center, three 15m transects were established to run through BR, BL, and UC to record the presence or absence of coarse woody debris (CWD; falled trees or any wood ≥10 cm diameter), (see schematic). If CWD was present, the following parameters were recorded: distance (m) to CWD from the plot center, category identification (Deciduous, Coniferous, or Unknown), species identification (if possible), diameter (cm), total length (m), state of decay (1 = very little decay, 2 = little decay, 3 = moderate decay, 4= advanced decay, 5= very advanced decay), whether the CWD was hollow (yes or no), and whether the CWD crossed multiple transects ( yes or no; if yes then the two pieces of CWD were labeled A and B). Quadrat Sampling At the plot’s four corners (BR, BL, UL, UR) and four mid points (UC, UR, MR, ML) a 1m2 quadrat was placed to sample site condition, percent cover, and species richness (see schematic). Each quadrat was recorded to be sampled and trampled (0 = no, 1 = yes). Within the quadrat percent cover (0, <1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100%) was estimated for the following categories: bare soil, exposed rock, woody stem, CWD, sphagnum moss, bryophyte (all non-sphagnum), and lichen. Additionally, percent cover (using the same percent ranges) was estimated for all individual species of plants and then each plant was further categorized (Woody = all woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, Forb = all non-woody angiosperm species, Fern = all vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers, Sedge = all species in the family Cyperaceae, Grass = all species in the family Poaceae, Rush = all species in the family Juncaceae, and Germinate = woody species with ≤ 2 cotyledons). Species Richness of Plot All flora within a plot was recorded. Each plant was identified to species, genus, or family and categorized (Woody = all woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, Forb = all non-woody angiosperm species, Fern = all vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers, Sedge = all species in the family Cyperaceae, Grass = all species in the family Poaceae, Rush = all species in the family Juncaceae, and Germinate = woody species with ≤ 2 cotyledons).

Study Extent Mohonk Preserve area.

Method step description:

  1. Site Selection & Plot Establishment Prerequisites for plot sites included: 1) plot center is ≥ 15 m from the Preserve boundary, a public road, a carriage road, a perennial stream, a water body, a mowed area, or any obstacle that would interfere with plot establishment; 2) plot is not be located on top of earthworks in cultural area; 3) plot is located in an area of < 30 degree/ 60% slope; and 4) plot is located in an area that is not a safety hazard (e.g. area free of unstable dead trees, pits, slick or unstable surfaces, etc.). Once the plot center was established in a suitable area, the plot boundaries were carefully measured creating a 15 x 15 meters (m) plot (see schematic). Each corner (upper right, UR; upper left, UL; back right, BR; and back left, BL) and mid-point were labeled (upper center, UC; middle right, MR; middle left, ML; and back center, BC). Plot Details Within the 15 x 15 m plot, GPS coordinates, observers, and time range of sampling was recorded. Aspect was recorded in degrees. Downhill and uphill slope of plot was recorded in degrees at plot points UC and BC. The physiographic class (measures of Xeric, Mesic, or Hydric) and the stand structure (Even-aged, Multi-aged, Mosaic, Early successional, or Woodland) were categorized and stunted woodland assessment was recorded (yes or no). Canopy live crown closure of the plot was estimated (<10%, 10-25%, 25-50%, 50-75%, >75%). Percent cover classes (0, 1-5, 5-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100%) for live vegetation was estimated for cover low (< 0.5 m), cover mid (0.5 – 2 m), and cover high (2 -5 m). Using the same percent cover ranges, cover was also estimated for trampled vegetation, bare soil, exposed bedrock or large rocks (>10cm), bryophyte (non-vascular plant foliage within the plot in the ground layer only; <0.5m), and lichen. Water on the plot was recorded (none, permanent stream/pond, swamp/bog/marsh, ditch/canal, temporary stream, flood zone, vernal pool, or other). Average stand height (m) of plot trees was determined by averaging the height of 3 trees (mix of dominant and co-dominant) using a clinometer. Microtopography presence or absence was recorded. Presence or absence of deer browseline was recorded and assessment of browse impact in the plot was completed using an index of 1 – 5 (1 = very low, 2 = low, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, 5 = very high). Potential plot disturbances to flora within the plot and severity of disturbance were assessed. Tree Sampling Within the 15 x 15 m plot, each tree species >10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH; measured at height of 1.37 m) was tagged numerically with aluminum tree tags. The plot was broken into 4 quarters labeled A-D (A: Northeast; B: Southeast; C: Southwest; D: Northwest). The following parameters were measured for each tree: species identification; DBH (cm); status of life (Alive or Dead) and growth of the tree (Standing, Leaning, Fallen, Broken); tree crown position in the canopy (Dominant, Co-dominant, Intermediate, Sub-canopy, Gap-exploiter, and Open-grown); tree condition (Insect damage, Large dead branches, Small or Large cavities, Burl/galls, Vines in canopy, or if no condition = Healthy); foliage condition (Holes, Necrosis, Chlorosis, Wilting, Leaf loss) and condition severity estimation for both the total foliage and the surface area of the affected foliage (1-10, 10-50, 50-90, 90-100%). For trees that were dead the state of decay was categorized (1 = very little decay, 2 = little decay, 3 = moderate decay, 4= advanced decay, 5= very advanced decay). It was recorded if the tree was forked (yes or no) as well as if the tree was unusual where the DBH was measured (yes or no). For applicable species (Eastern hemlock, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid; American beech, Beech Bark Disease; and White ash, Emerald Ash Borer) an index was estimated for severity of infection (1 = no sign of infection, 2 = some impact, 3 = moderate impact, 4 = severe impact). Regeneration Plot Sampling Three 2 m radius regeneration plots were established four meters from the plot center in the direction of upper right (UR), upper left (UL), and back center (BC), (see schematic). Within each regeneration plot all seedling, sapling, and shrub species were identified. Seedings are defined as live juvenile trees that are ≥15 cm tall and <1 cm DBH. Saplings are defined as juvenile trees ≥ 1 cm and < 10 cm DBH. Shrubs are defined as woody, sub-canopy species (woody vines included) and ≥ 30 cm tall. The number of living stems for each individual species were recorded within these categories. For each seedling species height (cm) was measured in ranges (15-30, 30-100, 100-150, and >150). For each shrub species percent cover (%) was estimated (<1, 1-5, 5-10, 10-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100). For each sapling, the DBH was measured (cm).
  2. Species Richness of Plot All flora within a plot was recorded. Each plant was identified to species, genus, or family and categorized (Woody = all woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, Forb = all non-woody angiosperm species, Fern = all vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers, Sedge = all species in the family Cyperaceae, Grass = all species in the family Poaceae, Rush = all species in the family Juncaceae, and Germinate = woody species with ≤ 2 cotyledons).
  3. Quadrat Sampling At the plot’s four corners (BR, BL, UL, UR) and four mid points (UC, UR, MR, ML) a 1m2 quadrat was placed to sample site condition, percent cover, and species richness (see schematic). Each quadrat was recorded to be sampled and trampled (0 = no, 1 = yes). Within the quadrat percent cover (0, <1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100%) was estimated for the following categories: bare soil, exposed rock, woody stem, CWD, sphagnum moss, bryophyte (all non-sphagnum), and lichen. Additionally, percent cover (using the same percent ranges) was estimated for all individual species of plants and then each plant was further categorized (Woody = all woody angiosperm and gymnosperm species, Forb = all non-woody angiosperm species, Fern = all vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers, Sedge = all species in the family Cyperaceae, Grass = all species in the family Poaceae, Rush = all species in the family Juncaceae, and Germinate = woody species with ≤ 2 cotyledons).
  4. Coarse Woody Debris Sampling From the plot center, three 15m transects were established to run through BR, BL, and UC to record the presence or absence of coarse woody debris (CWD; falled trees or any wood ≥10 cm diameter), (see schematic). If CWD was present, the following parameters were recorded: distance (m) to CWD from the plot center, category identification (Deciduous, Coniferous, or Unknown), species identification (if possible), diameter (cm), total length (m), state of decay (1 = very little decay, 2 = little decay, 3 = moderate decay, 4= advanced decay, 5= very advanced decay), whether the CWD was hollow (yes or no), and whether the CWD crossed multiple transects ( yes or no; if yes then the two pieces of CWD were labeled A and B).

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers https://doi.org/10.15468/gukkks
062f3445-944a-4fd4-915a-ed1a1109cf04
https://bison.usgs.gov/ipt/resource?r=mohonk-forest-health