FWS - Kenai National Wildlife Refuge - Snowshoe Hare Grid Surveys

Latest version published by United States Geological Survey on Jan 4, 2023 United States Geological Survey
Publication date:
4 January 2023
CC0 1.0

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Densities of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) were measured over time to document cyclic changes in hare abundance on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. Pellet counts were conducted annually on 5 grids of 49 1 m2 permanent pellet plots. All pellets within the 1 m2 plot were counted and removed. Pellet counts were averaged annually for each grid as an index of snowshoe hare abundance.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 5,318 records.

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The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

USFWS Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. 2020. Data from Occurrence data from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge snowshoe hare grid surveys. Contributed by Bowser, M. and Canterbury, C.


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is United States Geological Survey. To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Public Domain (CC0 1.0). Users may copy, modify, distribute and use the work, including for commercial purposes, without restriction.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: ceaedba5-2105-41e4-8991-6b4c8bd7a85e.  United States Geological Survey publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by U.S. Geological Survey.


Samplingevent; Occurrence


Matthew Bowser
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Fish and Wildlife Biologist
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge
PO Box 2139
99610 Soldotna
+1 907 260 2812
Annie Simpson
  • Originator
biologist & information scientist
USGS Core Science Systems
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
20192 Reston

Geographic Coverage

The geographic coverage of this dataset consists of seven grids of plots on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

Bounding Coordinates South West [60.452, -150.905], North East [60.729, -150.351]

Taxonomic Coverage

Snowshoe hare grid surveys.

Species Lepus americanus (Snowshoe hare)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1983-06-14 / 2020-08-14

Project Data

No Description available

Title Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Snowshoe Hare Grid Surveys
Study Area Description The study area consisted of seven grids of plots within the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge on the western Kenai Peninsula. From 1983 to 2020, grids were surveyed annually.
Design Description The design consisted of seven grids, each a 7 x 7 grid of 49 1 m2 plots. Plots were surveyed annually.

The personnel involved in the project:

Colin Canterbury
  • Author

Sampling Methods

Snowshoe hare Pellet counts were conducted on permanent pellet plots established at each of the 49 plot centers on the 5 permanent snowshoe hare grids. Each year, all pellets within the 1m2 plot were counted and removed.

Study Extent The study extent included seven grids of plots within the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge on the western Kenai Peninsula. From 1983 to 2020, grids were surveyed annually.
Quality Control In situations where permanent plots were damaged or could not be relocated, data were recorded as “NA” and plots were re-established. In cases where plots were not surveyed in any one year, the following year’s data, which would have included counts for two years of pellet deposition, were marked as missing data (“NA”). Records missing data were excluded from this dataset.

Method step description:

  1. See previous information.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Krebs C J, Kielland K, Bryant J, O’Donoghue M, Doyle F, McIntyre C, DiFolco D, Berg N, Carriere S, Boonstra R, Boutin S, Kenney A J, ReidDonald G, Bodony K, Putera J, Timm H K, Burke T. Synchrony in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle in northwestern North America, 1970–2012. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91:562-572. doi:10.1139/cjz-2013-0012. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2013-0012

Additional Metadata

Purpose Cyclic changes in hare abundance are one of the most ecologically important cycles in the North American boreal forest, including on the forested portions of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. This survey documents the hare cycle on the northern portion of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge.
Alternative Identifiers https://doi.org/10.15468/f8tmwr